ES2 cover

Earth Structure

An Introduction to Structural Geology and Tectonics


Ben van der Pluijm and Stephen Marshak

WW Norton & Company

Second Edition, 2004

ISBN 0-393-92467-X


New for 2016:
" Processes in Structural Geology and Tectonics

Processes in Structural Geology and TectonicsPSG&T offers a process-based approach to learning about structural geology and tectonics, based on material in Earth Structure (2nd ed). The online text combines fundamentals, observations and applications and differs significantly from most textbook offerings in this area by a novel and intuitive integration of content. The material starts with examination of the behavior, properties and structures of the upper crust, which is dominated by frictional procesess, followed by considering a lower crust and mantle that deform primarily by plastic processes; the third block of chapters examines the deformation characteristics of plate tectonic settings.
The pricing of PSG&T is another departure from traditional texts in this area, with very competitve rates (<10% of print) for ~5 month access.
ISBN 978-1-5323-0282-4

For examination access, email from a university email account with relevant info on your class, and, if available, weblink to course catalog.
On PSG&T's Facebook site,, you will find postings as we go along.
Direct all email about PSG&T to


"Earth Structure" (2nd edition)

WWNorton's ES2 Website

To receive an examination copy of Earth Structure, send your address and course information to:
Eric Svendsen, editor;

ES2 Orders and Examination Copy (webform)

Check ES2 on-line pricing

About the Authors

Ben A. van der Pluijm is Bruce R. Clark Collegiate Professor of Geology and Professor of the Environment at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. He is (co-)author of more than 170 research articles and editor/board member of several international journals. His research focuses on fault rocks and processes, crustal architecture of collisional belts, intraplate deformation, microstructures and textures, and geochronology, with field areas around the world. He teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in Earth Sciences and Program in the Environment at U-M, and offers outreach lectures on geology, sustainability and societal resilience.

Stephen Marshak is Professor of Geology and Director of the School of Earth Society and Environment at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. He holds a Ph.D. from Columbia University, an M.S. from the University of Arizona, and a B.A. from Cornell University. He has served as Chair of the Division of Structural Geology and Tectonics of the Geological Society of America. He has written numerous research articles on topics in structural geology and tectonics, and has authored or co-authored three other successful books: Basic Methods of Structural GeologyEarth: Potrait of a Planet; and Essentials of Geology.



Chapter 1 Overview
Chapter 2 Primary and Nontectonic Structures
Chapter 3 Force and Stress
Chapter 4 Deformation and Strain
Chapter 5 Rheology

Chapter 6 Brittle Deformation
Chapter 7 Joints and Veins
Chapter 8 Faults and Faulting

Chapter 9 Ductile Deformation Processes
Chapter 10 Folds and Folding
Chapter 11 Fabrics: Foliations and Lineations
Chapter 12 Ductile Shear Zones, Textures, and Transposition
Chapter 13 Deformation, Metamorphism, and Time

Chapter 14 Whole-Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics
Chapter 15 Geophysical Imaging of the Continental Lithosphere—An Essay by Frederick A. Cook
Chapter 16 Rifting, Seafloor Spreading, and Extensional Tectonics
Chapter 17 Convergence and Collision
Chapter 18 Fold-Thrust Belts—An Essay by Stephen Marshak and M. Scott Wilkerson
Chapter 19 Strike-Slip Tectonics

Chapter 20 A Global View
Chapter 21 Eastern Hemisphere
Chapter 22 Western Hemisphere

Appendix 1 Spherical Projections
Appendix 2 Geologic Timescale



Minor corrections were made after the first print runs of the second edition.  The corrections page only addresses recent print runs:

Changes and Corrections.



Figures from ES2 are available to adopters from the online Norton Resource Library. Color version of many figures are included in Processes in Structural Geology and Tectonics. Whereas figure numbers are different in PSG&T, the ES2 figure number is retianed at the end of the new caption.


Many photos are available on the Earth Structure Web Album. The images are copyrighted, and can only be used for educational, non-profit purposes. A rotating diplay of the images is at the top of this page.


PDFs of powerpoint slides for Chapters (and subchapters) are linked below (v. 2010). PowerPoint originals (incl notes/figure captions) are available on request to instructors who use the textbook, based on WW Norton's adopter records; contact Ben van der Pluijm.

Chapter Powerpoint (2010) Other/Comments
1. Overview 1_Introduction_general.pdf  
2. Primary Structures 2_PrimaryStructures.pdf  
3. Force and Stress 3_ForceStress.pdf  
4. Deformation and Strain 4_DeformationStrain.pdf  
5. Rheology 5_Rheology.pdf  
6. Brittle Deformation 6_BrittleDeformation.pdf see also Faults and Faulting
7. Joints and Veins 7_JointsVeins.pdf  
8. Faults and Faulting


see also Brittle Deformation
9. Ductile Deformation and Microstructures 9_DuctileDeformation.pdf see also Folds and Folding
10. Folds and Folding 10_FoldsFolding.pdf
see also Ductile Deformation
11. Foliations and Lineations 11_FoliationsLineations.pdf  
12. Ductile Shear Zones 12_DuctileShearZones.pdf  
13. Deformation, Metamorphism and Time 13_DefMetTime.pdf  
14. Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics 14_EarthStructurePlateTectonics.pdf  
15. Geophysical Imaging of the Continental Lithosphere 15_GeophysIm.pdf  
16. Extension Tectonics 16_ExtensionTectonics.pdf  
17. Contraction Tectonics 17_ContractionTectonics.pdf  
18. Fold-Thrust Belts 18_FoldThrustBelts.pdf  
19. Strike-Slip Tectonics 19_StrikeSlipTectonics.pdf  
20. Global View, and a North American Perspective 20_GlobalView.pdf
21. Eastern Hemisphere    
22. Western Hemisphere    


Links and more ....

Old ES2 website: .../ES/earthstructure.htm


The files below represent a variety of formats, from animated GIFs to .mov.  Some files are large and browser add-ins may be required. Some links may no longer be available.


Microstructures Thrust Structures Projections Plate tectonics

Interactive and Image Sites

Virtual Structure/Tectonics Trips

Organizations and Societies

More Links


Disclaimer. The text and illustrations on this and linked EarthStructure pages are strictly for educational purposes. All opinions expressed are the responsibility of the authors and do not represent those of the publisher nor the home institutions of the authors. 
Copyright. This page and its links contain copyrighted material. Reproduction in any form requires permission from the original copyright holders, the authors and/or the publishers.

Ben van der Pluijm © 2010